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V 10.01 build 0472

 

Release Dates

Version 10.01 Build 0472 – 25th January, 2011
Version 10.01 Build 0461 – 3rd January, 2011
Version 10.01 Build 0448 – 8th December, 2010

Release Information

Release Type: General Availability
Upgrade prerequisite: 24 x 7 OR 8 x 5 valid Support license
Applicable to: All the Cyberoam Appliance models

Upgrade procedure

1.     Logon to https://customer.cyberoam.com
2.     Click Upgrade URL link, select the appropriate option and follow the on-screen instruction.
3.     High Availability feature included in this upgrade is an EA feature. As it is a controlled release feature, to enable feature, you need to register your Appliance. Please mail your Appliance Key and current firmware version at support@cyberoam.com. This process is required for each new firmware.
 
Note: It is mandatory to upgrade to verion 10.01 build 472 prior to any further upgrades.
 
Compatibility issues
 
Firmware is Appliance model-specific firmware. Hence, firmware of one model will not be applicable on another model and upgrade will not be successful. You will receive error if you are trying to upgrade Appliance model CR100i with firmware for model CR500i.

 
Introduction

This document contains the release notes for Cyberoam version 10.01.0472. The following sections describe the release in detail.

This release comes with new features, few enhancements and several bug fixes to improve quality, reliability, and performance.


Features & Enhancements

Build 461

1.   Removed limitation of 6 WAN Interfaces

From this version onwards, limitation of 6 WAN interfaces is removed. Maximum N+VLAN where in N=Available physical interfaces on the appliance and maximum 4092 VLAN sub interfaces can be created on each physical interface. For example, incase of CR25ia (4 physical interfaces), if Port-A is configured as LAN then remaining 3 ports can be configured as a WAN and if required additional 4092 WAN Zone VLAN sub interfaces can be created on each physical interfaces.

2.   DHCP Relay support in HA Cluster

On failover Auxiliary appliance of HA Cluster will now work as DHCP Relay Agent if primary appliance is configured as DHCP Relay.

3.   Support of Authorization Policies for Clientless Single Sign On Users (CTAS)

With this support now, Administrator can restrict Internet access time i.e. total surfing time and control data transfer for the users who are authenticated by CTAS.

4.   Logs and Reports Enhancements

Cyberoam has extended its logging functionality by including:

  • Application Denied log - Log that records all the attempts made to access the application denied through Application Filter policy. Log can be viewed from Logs & Reports > Log Viewer > Application Filter Logs.
  • IPSec VPN log - Events like connection activated, connection fail, ID mismatch will be logged and can be viewed from Logs & Reports > Log Viewer > System Log.

5.   File System Integrity check support

Option is provided in the form of a CLI command to check file system integrity i.e. all the partitions. By default, check is OFF but whenever appliance goes in failsafe due to following reasons, this check is automatically turned ON:

  • Unable to start Config/Report/Signature Database
  • Unable to Apply migration
  • Unable to find the deployment mode

Once the check is turned ON, on the next boot, all the partitions will be checked. In addition, check will be turned OFF again on the next boot.

If the option is ON and the appliance boots up due following reasons, then file system check will not be enforced and option will be disabled after boot:

  • Factory reset
  • Flush Appliance Report

6.   Partition Reset support

File System Integrity check verifies all the partitions for the corruption. Check is enabled automatically when the appliance goes in failsafe mode.

It is required to flush the partitions if appliance comes up in failsafe mode even after the integrity check.

RESET command is extended to include commands to flush the partitions. With these commands, administrator can reset the config, signature and report partition. Entire data will be lost, as the partition will be flushed.

Integrity check repairs the partition while resetting partition removes entire data from the partition.

Command Usage
When you type RESET at the Serial Console Password prompt, menu with 3 options is provided:
1. Reset configuration
2. Reset configuration and signatures
3. Reset configuration, signatures and reports

Miscellaneous changes

1.     Default timeout for switching from storage mode to modem mode is changed from 0 to 10 sec. It can be changed from CLI with command: cyberoam wwan set modem-convert- timeout <number>
 
2.     IPS policy id and Application Filter policy id included in Firewall Rule Logs sent to syslog.

3.     Now Multicast forwarding can be configured when maximum 64 Interfaces are configured. Earlier it was limited up to 32 Interfaces only.

Version- 9 Catchup Feature

1.     Dashboard Alert if password of Super Administrator – admin, is not changed.

2.     RESET, Backup/Restore, Auto Upgrade, Manual Upgrade , Reboot events will be logged and can be viewed from iView (Reports > Event > Admin Events)

3.     IPSec, L2TP, PPTP logs can be viewed from CLI with commands:

show vpn IPSec-logs 
show vpn L2TP-logs
show vpn PPTP-logs

 

Build 448

1.   Four-Eye Authentication support

For legally compliant logging, reporting and archiving, it is important that an organization follows all obligations for keeping relevant information archived and accessible all the time. On one hand to maintain security, for organizations it is necessary to monitor logs related to employee activities while on other hand they must also not invade employee’s privacy.

However, monitoring user-specific activities without the consent or the presence of the employee or their delegate is illegal.

To safeguard the integrity and security of personal activities data collected, Cyberoam has added 4-Eye authentication method in addition to password-based authentication. It offers an added level of control and protection where a single person can access activity logs of other employees and have decision-making potential.

It prevents single administrator from having complete control over the logs and violate the organization’s privacy regulations by having insight to the confidential documents and misuse tracked user activities. It enhances the already existing logging and security mechanisms by adding an additional administrator, without whose permission access cannot be granted.

With 4-Eye authentication, two users – Administrator and Authorizer, are required to view the employee activity reports. Unless Authorizer approves, Administrator cannot view the reports.

Configuration

1.     Enable 4-Eye authentication from Log & Reports > 4-Eye Authentication > Setting. Once enabled, user identities - Username, IP address, MAC address, Email address and IM Contact ID will be encrypted i.e. anonymized, in all the reports.
2.     Configure Authorizer

De-anonymize to view the actual data

1.     Click Reports
2.     Access the report in which you want to de-anonymize user details. Details can be decrypted for the existing session or permanently.
3.     Specify Authorizer Password

2.   Filter HTTP traffic based on MIME header

Cyberoam has significantly enhanced its Content filtering feature by providing powerful function of filtering HTTP traffic based on MIME header in addition to file types. A MIME header list can be used to block traffic with certain types of contents or certain programs in otherwise allowed file type category. Cyberoam compares the MIME header and if a match is found, the corresponding action is taken.

For simplicity, MIME headers are included in the File Type Category along with File Extensions. In addition to default Categories, Cyberoam also has provision for adding custom category with the required MIME header. For default categories, refer Appendix A – Default File Type Categories.

Configuration
 
1.     Go to Objects > File type > File type to add custom category.
2.     Configure file extension and/or MIME header. If both file extension and MIME header are configured, file extension will be checked first.
3.     Implement and configure action from Web Filter policy

3.   VPN Connection Wizard

To speed up the VPN configuration, Cyberoam now provides VPN Connection Wizard for creating VPN Connection.

The VPN Connection Wizard walks you step-by-step through the configuration of VPN Connection. After the configuration is completed, the wizard creates VPN Connection for the selected VPN policy. Once the connection is successfully added, it is listed on VPN > IPSec > Connection page of Web Admin Console and connection details can be updated from the same page.

Wizard can be accessed from VPN > IPSec > Connection page of Web Admin Console.


4.   Domain Name support for NTP server

For ease of use, Cyberoam now provides an option to configure NTP server with FQDN apart from IP address.

Domain name can be configured from System > Configuration > Time page of Web Admin Console.


5.   Multiple NTP server support

To ensure that Cyberoam appliance always maintains the right time, Cyberoam supports use of multiple NTP servers. Cyberoam appliances use NTP Version 3 (RFC 1305). One can configure up to 10 NTP servers. At the time of synchronization, it queries each configured NTP server sequentially. When the query to the first server is not successful, Cyberoam queries second server and so on until it gets a valid reply from one of the NTP servers configured.

Configuration

1.     Go to System > Configuration > Time and Select “Sync with NTP Server”
 
2.     Select “Use Custom” and add IP address or Domain name of NTP server

 
6.   Multiple TSE/ Citrix Server Support in Cyberoam

Cyberoam provides support for transparent authentication of users running Terminal Services or Citrix and apply all the identity-based security policies to monitor and control the access. Now, one can configure up to 64 terminal servers. Up till now, it was possible to configure only one server.

This feature will be useful in the organization where terminal server is deployed in each department.

Configuration

Configure Cyberoam to communicate with Terminal Server from CLI using the command:

cyberoam auth thin-client add citrix-ip <ip address of citrix server>

Remove Terminal Server from CLI using the command:

cyberoam auth thin-client delete citrix-ip <ip address of citrix server>

View list of configured Terminal Servers from CLI using the command:

cyberoam auth thin-client show


7.   Web and FTP Detail Report with Time Stamp

With this version, one more drill down report in the form of Detail report is added for Web Usage and FTP Usage.

Web Usage Detail report added as a leaf (last drill down) report of ‘Top URLs’ report, provides URL access date and time as well as data transfer details. 

FTP Usage Detail report added, as a leaf report to all the FTP Usage reports, provides upload and download date and time along with the size.


8.
   Time Stamp for Anti Virus, Anti Spam, IPS and Mail Usage Reports

Leaf report of Anti Virus, Anti Spam, Mail Usage and Attacks report, now displays time stamp in the YYYY: MM: DD HH:MM:SS format to know the exact time and date of attack and usage.


9.   Firmware Upgrade without disabling HA

To improve the ease of maintenance, HA in v 10.01.04xx supports firmware upgrade without disabling HA


10.   Support of DHCP Custom options

Cyberoam has extended its DHCP Options feature to provide support for custom options as per RFC 2132. DHCP options allow users to specify additional DHCP parameters in the form of pre-defined, vendor-specific information that is stored in the options field of a DHCP message. When the DHCP message is sent to clients on the network, it provides vendor-specific configuration and service information. Prior to this version, only standard options could be configured.

Supported Scalar data types:
array-of - Array of Data Type
one-byte - One Byte Numeric Value
two-byte - Two Byte Numeric Value
four-byte - Four Byte Numeric Value
ipaddress – IP address
string - String
boolean - Boolean
Supported Array data types:
one-byte - Array of One Byte Numeric Values
two-byte - Array of Two Byte Numeric Values
four-byte - Array of Four Byte Numeric Values
ipaddress - Array of IP address

Configuration

1.     Define DHCP Option from CLI console
2.     Attach to DHCP server from CLI console
 
 
Example:
 
1. Define custom dhcp option 176 of the type “string”  
console> cyberoam dhcp dhcp-options add optioncode 176 optionname aphone optiontype string

console> cyberoam dhcp dhcp-options binding add dhcpname dhcptest1 optionname aphone(176) value MCIPADD=192.168.42.1,MCPORT=1719,TFTPSRVR=192.168.42.1

 2. View all DHCP options that are configured for DHCP Server

console> cyberoam dhcp dhcp-options binding show dhcpname dhcptest1

 3. View all DHCP options that can be attached to DHCP server

console> cyberoam dhcp dhcp-options list

 4. Removing definition of custom dhcp option 176 (defined in point 1)

console> cyberoam dhcp dhcp-options delete optionname aphone (176)

5. Delete DHCP options from DHCP Server

console> cyberoam dhcp dhcp-options binding delete dhcpname dhcptest1 optionname aphone(176)

 11.   Increased Bandwidth Maximum Limit of QoS Policy

In QoS Policy, maximum bandwidth limit has been increased to 12500 KB from 4096 KB.

12.   UTF-8 Support in iView

iView reports will now be displayed in UTF-8 characters when details are configured in any language other than English.


13.
   External Authentication support using RADIUS for MSCHAPv2/CHAP for L2TP and PPTP Connections
Now PPTP and L2TP connections established using MSCHAPv2 or CHAP protocol can be authenticated through RADIUS.
 

Known Behavior

Build 472

While performing Upload & Reboot operation, if you receive message “Too Many Connections!, Please Try After Some Seconds”, access Web Admin Console after some time, go to System > Maintenance > Firmware and click “Boot firmware image” against 10_01_0472 firmware .

Bugs Solved

Build 471

High Availability

Bug ID - 5211
Description - HA could not be enabled for the appliance models with more than 6 ports.

Interface

Bug ID – 5314
Description – On removing alias, non-interface based static routes get flushed.

Logs & Report

Bug ID – 5214
Description – Incorrect value is displayed for Allotted, Used and Remaining Data transfer columns in Internet Usage report on View Usage page of User in Web Admin Console as well as My Account.
 
Bug ID – 5377
Description – When application is denied, Application filter log does not display username.

SSL VPN

Bug ID – 5365
Description – When User Email ID is not configured and Per User Certificate authentication is configured for tunnel access, files - Installer bundled with Configuration and Configuration downloaded are of size zero.

User

Bug ID – 5236
Description – CTAS traffic over VPN zone is not allowed.
 
Bug ID – 5312
Description – Hypen (-) is not supported in Username and Domain name.

Web Admin Console

Bug ID – 5237
Description – For email address, more than 4 characters are not allowed in domain e.g. myname@companyname.domainname
 
Bug ID – 5287
Description – When question mark was included in spam rule, spam scanning does not work.

Build 461

Group

Bug ID – 1140
Description – Add and Remove buttons are not displayed in Import Group wizard.
 
Bug ID – 4727
Description – Mismatch in Dashboard - Live Connected Users and Concurrent Sessions displayed on Live Users page.
 
Bug ID – 5087
Description – At the time of importing groups from Active Directory, no appropriate message is given if groups are not existing in AD. Ideally, message "No group exists in the given base DN. Please verify Base DN or Create groups in AD" should be given.
 
Bug ID – 5077
Description – When the user group membership is changed and the new group does not exist in Cyberoam, tightly integration between Active Directory and Cyberoam does not work. Due to this, user still belongs to the old group. Ideally, if group does not exist in Cyberoam then user should belong to the “Open Group”.

Logs and Reports

Bug ID – 3021
Description – Reports do not include time stamp.
 
Bug ID – 3565
Description – It is not possible to export Custom View report as PDF file.
 
Bug ID – 4574
Description – Web Usage Trend report is not displayed as per the selected date.
 
Bug ID – 4670
Description – Even when there are 5 records, “View All” link is not displayed in all the Dashboard Widgets.
 
Bug ID – 5147
Description – French Label "Atteindre" is not displayed properly in iView.

Migration

Bug ID – 5010
Description – After migrating to Version 10.x from Version 9.x, it is not possible to add more than 6 Interfaces.

Proxy

Bug ID – 5200
Description – Google’s Image Safe Search does not work with http://www.google.fr/.
 
Bug ID – 5217
Description – After applying Web filter policy, Remote Desktop application like LogMeIn become inaccessible.

System

Bug ID – 2647
Description – It is not possible to add more than 6 Interfaces.
 
Bug ID - 4588
Description - Even when appliance is deployed in "Bridge mode", Syslog displays deployment mode as "Route" mode.
 
Bug ID – 4649
Description – If wrong password is specified at the time of logging in to My Account" from captive portal, it redirects to “Web Admin Console" login page.
 
Bug ID – 4651
Description - After logging out from the Captive Portal login page, the logout Window page is showing the option for "Web Admin Console" also. In the log-out page, ideally only 'My Account' option should be available.
 
Bug ID – 4668
Description – When the DHCP lease time is configured for 2 minutes or less, Cyberoam DHCP is not able to renew IP addresses. Due to this, LAN to WAN connections are dropped frequently.
 
Bug ID – 5070
Description – Enabling packet capture without configuring any filtering condition results in high CPU utilization.
 
Bug ID – 5161
Description – It is not possible to include word “Corporate” in Captive Portal Login Page Header or Footer.
 
Bug ID – 5222
Description – “My Account” link from Captive Portal opens Cyberoam Web Admin Console login page instead of My Account login page.

Users

Bug ID – 4607
Description – Live User page randomly displays zero live users even when users are currently logged in.

VPN

Bug ID – 3556
Description – PPTP and L2TP VPN logs are not available.
 
Bug ID – 5077
Description – Search functionality does not work on Add L2TP Member and Add PPTP Member page of Web Admin Console.
 
Bug ID – 5259
Description – It was not possible to establish PPTP connections using MSCHAPv2 protocol when users are authenticated through RADIUS.

Build 448

Categorization

Bug ID - 3425
Description - It is possible to download denied file types included in custom category through Web-based Mails like Yahoo, Gmail and Hotmail.
 
Bug ID – 4479
Description – When keywords exceed 4096 characters is defined in a custom web category, all the websites get categorized under this web category only.

Clients

Bug ID – 4580
Description – Auto Login of Corporate Client does not work from version 10.00.0309.
 
Bug ID – 4672
Description – Captive portal authentication does not work after upgrading to V 10.01.0270 from V 10.00.0310.

Firewall

Bug ID – 5100
Description – At the time of creating firewall rule, Internal Server error occurs. This happens only when not a single user except ‘admin’ user exists in Cyberoam.

High Availability

Bug ID – 4604
Description – HA Communication log displayed “root” instead of “System” as username.

Instant Messaging

Bug ID – 4296
Description - After enabling IM scanning, it is not possible to use Windows Live Messenger (MSN) with third party applications like Trillian or Pidgin.
 
Bug ID – 4999
Description – When IM logging is enabled, it is not possible to login to Windows Live Messenger 2011.
 
Bug ID – 5072
Description – When IM logging is enabled, it is not possible to change display scene/picture for Windows Live Messenger 2009 and get new mail alert.

Logs and Reports

Bug ID - 3206
Description - Top L2TP Users and Top PPTP Users report always displays zero as connection up and down time.
 
Bug ID – 4660
Description – Files are not archived after upgrading to version 10.01.0270.
 
Bug ID – 4683
Description – When Super-administrator password is changed, single step login for Cyberoam and iView Web Admin Console does not work. Due to this, administrator is not logging on to iView automatically. This happens only when users are authenticated locally.

Migration

Bug ID – 5010
Description – After migrating from V 9.x.x to V 10.xx.xx, it is not possible to add PPPoE Interface. At the time adding, error “Only six interfaces are supported." occurs.

 Proxy

Bug ID – 4782
Description – When Cyberoam is configured as Direct Proxy, remote access and desktop sharing application like TeamViewer, does not work.
 
Bug ID – 4880
Description – After enabling SMTP Scanning, it will not be possible to send large size emails.
 
Bug ID – 5012
Description – Cyberoam is not compatible with Netsweeper - Internet content filtering and web threat management solution, when Cyberoam is deployed as Direct Proxy. Due to this, users are not able to access the Internet.

Registration

Bug ID – 3745
Description – Warning message about subscribing or renewing Anti Spam module is not displayed on the Spam Digest Settings page.

Translation

Bug ID – 3000
Description - Backup & Restore page of Chinese GUI was not completely translated.
 
Bug ID – 5037
Description – In the navigation menu – Identity, word “User” was incorrectly translated in French.

System

Bug ID – 4583
Description – It was possible to bind same IP Address to Gateway and to any of the appliance Interface.
 
Bug ID – 4704
Description – On gateway failover, VOIP connections are not shifted over to the backup gateway.
 
Bug ID – 4931
Description – Signature Database is not flushed on factory reset.
 
Bug ID – 4947
Description – When External Authentication is configured, Simultaneous Logins configured globally from Identity > Authentication > Firewall page does not work .

User

Bug ID – 650
Description – Data Transfer Policy is not applied to Clientless Single Sign-On (CTAS) users.   
 
Bug ID – 653
Description – Surfing Quota Policy is not applied to Clientless Single Sign-On (CTAS) users.   
 
Bug ID – 4719
Description – Test Connection to Active Directory fails when special character double quotation mark i.e. “ is included in the password.
 
Bug ID – 4735
Description – Access Time, Surfing quota and Data transfer policies were not applicable for CTAS users.
 
Bug ID – 4812
Description – Test Connection to LDAP fails when special character comma is included before the domain name.
 
For example
,dc=cyberoam,dc=com ---- incorrect
 dc=cyberoam,dc=com ---- correct
 
Bug ID – 4887
Description – It is not possible to place login restriction on IP addresses as x.x.x.0 or x.x.x.255

Web Admin Console

Bug ID – 4605
Description – Identity based WAN-VPN zone firewall rule was incorrectly displayed on the Firewall Rule of Web Admin Console.
 
Bug ID – 4718
Description – Dashboard sticks due to long domain name in Recent HTTP Virus detected and Recent Web Viruses Detected Doclets.
 
Bug ID – 4733
Description – At the time of creating bookmark, if backslash (“/”) is not included at the end of the URL then the URL is truncated up to last “/”.

E.g. URL: http://www.google.com/cisco is truncated to http://www.google.com/ and bookmark is created for the URL - http://www.google.com/ and not http://www.google.com/cisco

Bug ID – 4967
Description – No alert message is displayed when Port 80 or Port 443 are removed from the Trusted Port list from page System > Administration > Setting page of Web Admin Console.

Wireless LAN

Bug ID – 4891
Description – It is not possible to update “Geography” to “United States” from Network > Wireless LAN > Settings page of Web Admin Console.

Wireless WAN

Bug ID – 4904
Description – At the time of re-connection to 3G device, error “Device not detected” occurs.


 

Appendix A – Default File Type Categories

File Type Category Name

File Extensions

MIME Headers

Video Files

dat, mov, avi, qt, smi, sml, smil, flc, fli, vfw, mpeg, mpg, m15, m1u, m1a, m75, mls, mp2, mpm, mp, rm, wmv, flv, swf

application/octet-stream, application/x-troff-msvideo, video/avi, video/msvideo, video/x-msvideo, video/quicktime, application/smil, application/x-simile, Video/flc, video/fli, video/x-fli, video/mpeg, video/x-mpeg, video/x-mpeq2a, application/vnd.rn-realmedia, video/flv, application/x-shockwave-flash

Audio Files

gsm, sd2, qcp, kar, smf, midi, mid, ulw, snd, aifc, aif, aiff, m3url, m3u, wav, rm, au, ram, mp3, wmv

audio/x-gsm, audio/vnd.qcelp, audio/x-midi, application/x-midi, audio/midi, audio/x-mid, x-music/x-midi, audio/basic, audio/x-adpcm, audio/aiff, audio/x-aiff, audio/x-mpequrl, audio/wav, audio/x-wav, application/vnd.rn-realmedia, audio/x-au, audio/x-pn-realaudio, audio/mpeg3, audio/x-mpeg-3, audio/x-ms-wmv

Executable Files

exe, cmd, bat, com

application/bat, application/x-bat, application/x-msdos-program, application/textedit, application/octet-stream, text/plain

Dynamic Files

pl, jsp, asp, php, cgi, shtml

text/x-script.perl, text/asp, text/x-server-parsed-html, text/html

Image Files

bmp, gif, jpeg, jpg, pcx, png

image/bmp, image/x-windows-bmp, image/gif, image/pjpeg, image/jpeg, image/x-pcx, image/png

Document Files

(Document file format could be described as a text, or binary data file type, used to store formatted documents (texts, pictures, cliparts, tables, charts, multiple pages, multiple documents etc.).)

doc, docx, wbk, xls, xlsx, ppt, pptx, oft, pub, msg, one, xsf, xsn, grv, mpp, mpt, acl, pip, thmx, aw, bld, blg, bvp, cdd, cdf, contact, csv, dat, dif, dmsp, efx, epub, epw, exif, exp, fdb, fxp, gbr, gpi, hdf, id2, lib, mat, mcd, menc, mw, ndx, not, notebook, out, ovf, pdx, pfc, pps, ppsx, pptm, prj, qbw, sdf, svf, tar, tsv, vcf, vdb, vxml, windowslivecontact, wlmp, xfd, xml, xsl, xslt, lit, log, lst, odt, opml, pages, rtf, sig, tex, txt, wpd, wps

application/msword, application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document, application/excel, application/vnd.ms-excel, application/x-excel, application/x-msexcel, application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet, application/mspowerpoint, application/powerpoint, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint, application/x-mspowerpoint, application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation, application/x-mspublisher, application/onenote, application/octet-stream, application/vnd.ms-project, application/x-project, application/vnd.ms-officetheme, application/cdf, application/x-cdf, application/x-netcdf, text/comma-separated-values, text/csv, application/csv, video/x-dv, application/x-hdf, application/mcad, application/x-mathcad, application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.slideshow, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.presentation.macroEnabled.12, image/vnd.dwg, image/x-dwg, application/x-tar, text/tab-separated-values, text/x-vcard, application/xml, text/xml, application/x-ms-reader, text/plain, application/rtf, application/x-rtf, text/richtext, application/x-tex, application/wordperfect, application/x-wpwin, application/vnd.ms-works

Compressed Files

(Compressed files use file compression in order to save disk space. Compressed archive formats can also be used to compress multiple files into a single archive.)

7z, alz, deb, gz, pkg, pup, rar, rpm, sea, sfx, sit, sitx, tar.gz, tgz, war, zip, zipx

application/x-7z-compressed, application/x-alz, application/x-deb, application/x-gzip, application/x-newton-compatible-pkg, application/x-rar-compressed, application/sea, application/x-sea, application/x-sit, application/x-stuffit, application/gnutar, application/x-compressed, application/x-zip-compressed, application/zip, multipart/x-zip

Web Files (The Web Files category includes files related to websites and Web servers. These include static and dynamic webpages, Web applications, and files referenced by webpages.)

alx, asax, asmx, aspx, atom, att, axd, cer, chm, crt, csr, css, dwt, htm, html, js, jspx, pac, qbo, rss, spc, ucf, webarchive, wgt, wml, xfdl, xhtm, xhtml

application/atom+xml, application/octet-stream, application/pkix-cert, application/x-x509-ca-cert, application/x-x509-user-cert, application/x-pointplus, text/css, text/html, application/x-javascript, application/javascript, application/ecmascript, text/javascript, text/ecmascript, application/x-pkcs7-certificates, text/x-speech, text/vnd.wap.wml

Database Files

(Database files store data in a structured format, organized into tables and fields. Individual entries within a database are called records. Databases are commonly used for storing data referenced by dynamic websites.)

accdb, db, dsn, mdb, mdf, pdb, sql, sqlite

application/msaccess, application/x-msaccess, application/vnd.msaccess, application/vnd.ms-access, application/mdb, application/x-mdb, chemical/x-pdb

System Files

(The System Files category includes files related to Mac, Windows, and Linux operating systems. Some examples include system libraries, icons, themes, and device drivers. Files output by the system are also included in this category.)

bashrc, cab, cpl, cur, dll, dmp, drv, hlp, ico, key, lnk, msp, prf, profile, scf, scr, sys

application/vnd.ms-cab-compressed, application/octet-stream, application/x-msdownload, application/hlp, application/x-helpfile, application/x-winhelp, image/x-icon

Configuration Files

(Settings files store settings for the operating system and applications. These files are not meant to be opened by the user, but are modified by the corresponding application when the program preferences are changed. Settings files may also be called preference files or configuration files.)

cfg, clg, dbb, ini, keychain, prf, prx, psf, rdf, reg, thmx, vmx, wfc

application/pics-rules, application/octet-stream, application/vnd.ms-officetheme

Developer Files

(The Developer Files category contains files related to software development. These include programming project files, source code files, code libraries, header files, and class files. Compiled objects and components are also included in this category.)

as, asc, c, cbl, cc, class, cp, cpp, cs, csproj, dev, dtd, f, fs, fsproj, fsx, ftl, gem, h, hpp, ise, ism, java, m, ocx, pas, pod, pro, py, r, rb, sh, src, tcl, trx, v, vbproj, vcproj, vtm, xcodeproj

text/plain, text/x-c, application/java, application/java-byte-code, application/x-java-class, text/xml, text/x-fortran, text/x-h, text/x-java-source, text/x-m, application/octet-stream, text/pascal, text/x-script.phyton, application/x-bsh, application/x-sh, application/x-shar, text/x-script.sh, application/x-wais-source, application/x-tcl, text/x-script.tcl

Backup Files

(The Backup Files category includes individual file backups and files related to backup software. Individual backup files are often generated automatically by software programs. Backup software files include incremental backups and full system backups.)

asd, bak, bkp, bup, dba, dbk, fbw, gho, nba, old, ori, sqb, tlg, tmp

application/octet-stream

Encoded Files

(Encoded files are files that store data in an encoded format. These include encrypted files, uncompressed archives, and binary-encoded text files. Files are often encoded for security purposes and to keep them from being corrupted during data transfers.)

bin, enc, hex, hqx, mim, mime, uue

application/mac-binary, application/macbinary, application/octet-stream, application/x-binary, application/x-macbinary, application/binhex, application/binhex4, application/mac-binhex, application/mac-binhex40, application/x-binhex40, application/x-mac-binhex40, message/rfc822, www/mime, text/x-uuencode

Plugin Files

(Plugin files provide extra features and functionality to existing programs. They are commonly used by image, video, and audio editing applications, as well as Web browsers. Plugins are also referred to as add-ons and extensions.)

8bi, arx, crx, plugin, vst, xll

application/x-visio, application/excel,

application/vnd.ms-excel, application/x-excel

Disk Image Files

(Disk image files contain an exact copy of a hard disk or other type of media. They include all the files, as well as the file system information. This allows disk images to be used for duplicating disks, CDs, and DVDs. They are often used for backup purposes as well.)

dmg, iso, mdf, nrg, nri, pvm, toast, vcd, vmdk

application/x-cdlink

Page Layout Files

(Page layout files are documents that may contain both text and image data. They also include formatting information, which defines the page size, margins, and how content is organized on the page. Page layout documents are often used for creating printable publications, such as newspapers, magazines, and brochures.)

idml, indd, inx, isd, mdi, pct, pdf, pmd, ptx, pub, qxb, qxd, qxp, rels, xps

image/x-pict, application/pdf, application/x-mspublisher, application/octet-stream, application/vnd.ms-xpsdocument

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Article ID: 335